Depression is a complex mental health disorder that has been linked to a variety of causes, including faulty mood regulation by the brain, genetic vulnerability, stressful life events, and corticolimbic connectivity abnormalities. It is difficult to determine which regional anomaly can be primary and which is secondary, but neuropsychiatric studies suggest that depression could arise from primary abnormalities in cortical areas, such as the left frontal cortex. Other possible causes include medical illness, life changes, family history of depression, and abnormalities in the hippocampus. Alcohol abuse can worsen symptoms of depression, and treatments such as cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) have been shown to be effective.
Multiple genes that interact with each other in special ways are likely to contribute to the various types of depression that occur in families. Finally, early experiences may also play a role in the development of depression. Depression is a serious mental health disorder that can have a profound impact on an individual's life. It is important to understand the various causes of depression so that we can develop effective treatments. Research suggests that depression is not simply due to having too much or too little of certain brain chemicals.
Rather, there are many possible causes of depression, including faulty mood regulation by the brain, genetic vulnerability, and stressful life events. In terms of connectivity, corticolimbic connectivity abnormalities are often cited as a cause of depression or other psychiatric illnesses. This implies that some of the abnormalities in the brain regions may be secondary to abnormalities in another primary region. No one knows exactly what causes it, but it can happen for several reasons.
Some people have depression during a serious medical illness. Others may have depression with life changes, such as a move or the death of a loved one. Others have a family history of depression. Sufferers may have depression and be overwhelmed by sadness and loneliness for no known reason.
There is no single cause of depression; it can occur for a variety of reasons and has many different triggers. The hippocampus, a small part of the brain that is vital for memory storage, appears to be smaller in some people with a history of depression than in those who have never been depressed. A review of neuroimaging, neuropsychiatric therapy and brain stimulation studies indicates that it is difficult to determine the location of depression. Although depression and grief share some characteristics, depression is different from the pain you feel after losing a loved one or the sadness you feel after a traumatic life event. Drinking alcohol often can worsen symptoms of depression, and people who have depression are more likely to abuse or become dependent on alcohol. The 1950s was an important decade in the treatment of depression, thanks to doctors noting that a tuberculosis drug called isoniazid seemed to be useful in treating depression in some people. Multiple genes that interact with each other in special ways are likely to contribute to the various types of depression that occur in families.
The emergence of these cognitive models of depression played an important role in the development of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), which has been shown to be effective in treating depression. Mayberg and colleagues (1) first observed a reciprocal relationship between decreased metabolism in the prefrontal cortex and increased metabolism in limbic regions such as striatum and thalamus in depression, leading to the hypothesis that corticolimbic connectivity abnormality may be present in the depression. For example, depression can cause disturbances in sleep, appetite, and activity levels; in turn, lack of sleep, diet, and exercise can aggravate symptoms of depression. Another strategy that has been suggested to preserve the hypothesis on a regional neuroanatomical basis of depression is not to treat depression as a unitary disease but to divide it into its different symptoms while exploring its anatomical basis. The common manifestation of depression and executive dysfunction in the context of vascular disease is common (7) and therefore may suggest the contribution of DLPFC involvement in the etiology of depression. Children, siblings, and parents of people with major depression are more likely to have depression than members of the general population. While ancient conceptualizations of depression emphasized the role of early experiences, more recent approaches increasingly emphasize the biopsychosocial model that analyzes the biological, psychological and social factors that play a role in depression.