Depression is a group of conditions associated with a person's elevated or decreased mood, such as depression or bipolar disorder. It can be difficult to identify the type of depression you may be experiencing, as there are many different types. In this article, we'll explore the various types of depression, their symptoms, and treatment options. Major depression is a type of depression that is characterized by five or more symptoms that last for two weeks or more.
These symptoms include a depressed mood or loss of interest in activities, changes in appetite or weight, difficulty sleeping, low energy, feelings of worthlessness, and thoughts of death or suicide. Traditional antidepressants are not always recommended as first-line treatments for major depression because there is no evidence that these drugs are more useful than a placebo (a sugar pill) for treating depression. Persistent depressive disorder (formerly known as dysthymia) is a type of mild and long-lasting depression. People suffering from persistent depressive disorder experience symptoms that are less severe than those experienced by patients with major depressive disorder (MDD).
Symptoms may include changes in appetite and sleep, lack of energy, low self-esteem or hopelessness. Bipolar disorder is a type of depression in which a patient oscillates between periods of abnormally elevated mood (mania) and depressive episodes. Treatment for bipolar disorder is different from MDD, which does not include mania. This helps prevent the intense ups and downs associated with bipolar disorder.
Talk therapy can help you recognize what triggers mania and depression and help you better manage your symptoms. Medicines may not work for some people with bipolar disorder, so transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is sometimes recommended. Peripartum depression affects some mothers after childbirth. It is more serious than sadness and can include symptoms such as difficulty sleeping, changes in appetite or weight, low energy, feelings of worthlessness, and thoughts of death or suicide. Antidepressant medications may help in a similar way to treating major depression that is not related to childbirth. Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a period of major depression that occurs most often during the winter months when days get shorter and you get less sunlight.
It usually disappears in spring and summer. A combination of antidepressant and antipsychotic drugs can treat SAD. Psychotic depression involves periods of psychosis which may involve hallucinations and delusions. Medical professionals refer to this as major depressive disorder with psychotic characteristics. A combination of antidepressant and antipsychotic drugs can treat psychotic depression.Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) may be related to hormonal changes.
Symptoms often start right after ovulation and begin to subside once you have your period. Situational depression (adjustment disorder with depressed mood) resembles major depression in many ways. No matter the type of depression you may be experiencing, it's important to seek help from your doctor or mental health specialist if you experience cognitive or mood changes that last more than a few weeks. Treatment options vary depending on the type of depression but may include psychotherapy, medication, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), or a combination thereof.