Types of depression include clinical depression, bipolar depression, dysthymia, seasonal affective disorder and others. Treatment options range from counseling to medication, brain stimulation and complementary therapies. There are many different types of depression. Events in your life cause some and chemical changes in your brain cause others.
Your doctor may diagnose major depression if you have five or more of these symptoms most days for 2 weeks or more. At least one of the symptoms should be a depressed mood or loss of interest in activities. If you have depression that lasts 2 years or more, it's called persistent depressive disorder. This term is used to describe two conditions formerly known as dysthymia (persistent low-grade depression) and chronic major depression.
A person with bipolar disorder, which is also sometimes called manic depression, has mood episodes that range from high-energy extremes with a high mood to low depressive periods. When you're in the low phase, you'll have symptoms of major depression. Traditional antidepressants are not always recommended as first-line treatments for bipolar depression because there is no evidence that these drugs are more useful than a placebo (a sugar pill) for treating depression in people with bipolar disorder. In addition, for a small percentage of people with bipolar disorder, some traditional antidepressants may increase the risk of causing a high phase of the disease or speed up the frequency of having more episodes over time.
Seasonal affective disorder is a period of major depression that occurs most often during the winter months, when days get shorter and you get less and less sunlight. It usually disappears in spring and summer. A combination of antidepressant and antipsychotic drugs can treat psychotic depression. ECT can also be an option.
Women who have major depression in the weeks and months after childbirth may have peripartum depression. About 1 in 10 men also experience depression in the peripartum period. Antidepressant medications may help in a similar way to treating major depression that is not related to childbirth. Dysthymia (persistent depressive disorder) is a type of mild and long-lasting depression.
People suffering from dysthymia experience symptoms that are less severe than those experienced by patients with MDD. Because the symptoms of dysthymia last so long and may not have a major impact on your life, you may not even realize you have the condition. Bipolar disorder is a type of depression in which a patient oscillates between periods of abnormally elevated mood (mania) and depressive episodes. Since bipolar disorder includes periods of mania as well as depression, treatment is different from MDD, which does not include mania.
This helps prevent the intense ups and downs associated with bipolar disorder. Talk therapy can also help you recognize what triggers mania and depression and help you better manage your symptoms. Medicines may not work for some people with psychotic depression. Therefore transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is sometimes recommended.
EMT treatment stimulates prefrontal cortex cells with electromagnetic pulses. Postpartum Depression Affects Some Mothers After Childbirth. You may have heard it called “postpartum melancholy,” although it is more serious than sadness. People with major depression experience symptoms most of the day, every day.
These symptoms can last for weeks or even months. Some people may have a single episode of major depression, while others experience it throughout their lives. Regardless of how long symptoms last, major depression can cause problems with your relationships and daily activities. Persistent depressive disorder is depression that lasts 2 years or more.
People may also refer to this as dysthymia or chronic depression. Persistent depression may not feel as intense as major depression, but it can still strain relationships and make daily tasks difficult. Persistent depression lasts for years in a row, so people with this type of depression may begin to feel that their symptoms are only part of their normal view of life. Some people with major depression may experience periods of psychosis.
This may involve hallucinations and delusions. Medical professionals refer to this as major depressive disorder with psychotic characteristics. However, some providers still refer to this phenomenon as depressive psychosis or psychotic depression. Similar to perinatal depression, PMDD may be related to hormonal changes.
Your symptoms often start right after ovulation and begin to subside once you have your period. Situational depression, or adjustment disorder with depressed mood, resembles major depression in many ways. There are different types of depressive disorders. Symptoms can range from relatively mild (but still disabling) to very severe, so it's helpful to know the variety of conditions and their specific symptoms.
Not only is depression difficult to endure, it is also a risk factor for heart disease and dementia. Depressive symptoms can occur in adults for many reasons. If you experience cognitive or mood changes that last more than a few weeks, it's a good idea to contact your doctor or see a mental health specialist to help determine possible causes, says Dr. Nancy Donovan, Psychiatry Instructor at Harvard Medical School.
The classic type of depression, major depression, is a state in which a dark mood consumes everything and you lose interest in activities, even those that are usually pleasurable. Symptoms of this type of depression include difficulty sleeping, changes in appetite or weight, loss of energy, and feeling worthless. Thoughts of death or suicide may occur. It is usually treated with psychotherapy and medication.
For some people with severe depression that is not relieved by psychotherapy or antidepressant medications, electroconvulsive therapy may be effective. Formerly called dysthymia, this type of depression refers to low mood that has lasted at least two years but may not reach the intensity of major depression. Many people with this type of depression can function day by day, but they feel depressed or joyless most of the time. Other depressive symptoms may include changes in appetite and sleep, lack of energy, low self-esteem or hopelessness.
An inherent drawback to the use of the ICD-10 criteria for depression is that most of the treatment research on which the guidelines should be based uses the DSM—IV criteria or earlier, essentially similar versions of the DSM (DSM—III and DSM—III—R). “As discussed below, the criteria are similar but not identical, and this has particular relevance to the “" threshold "” of the diagnosis of clinically significant depressive episode and, therefore, what is considered to be depressive symptoms below the threshold or below the threshold.”. An influential model of the course of major depression proposes that the onset of an episode of depression consists of a worsening of symptoms on a continuum ranging from depressive symptoms to major depression. The improvement phases with treatment consist of the response (significant improvement) to remission (absence of depressive symptoms) which, if stable for 4 to 6 months, results in a (symptomatic) recovery, meaning that the episode is over (Frank et al.
It is important to distinguish this use from recovery from more recent concepts related to the quality and meaning of life, despite the persistence of symptoms. After recovery, a new episode of depression is considered a recurrence to distinguish it from a relapse of the same episode. There has been no consensus on how long a period of remission should last before recovery can be declared; different definitions result in different definitions of the duration of the episode and the time to total depressive relapse or below the threshold (Furukawa et al. Therefore, in practice it can be difficult to distinguish between relapse and recurrence, especially when people have mild residual symptoms.
Follow-up studies of people with depression have shown that, in general, more time is spent with depressive symptoms below the threshold than with major depression and that there is a variable individual pattern ranging from persistent chronic major depression to significant but not total improvement (partial remission). until complete remission and recovery (Judd et al. DSM—IV defines complete remission when there has been no symptoms for at least 2 months. For partial remission, complete criteria for a major depressive episode are no longer met, or there are no substantial symptoms, but 2 months have not yet passed.
DSM — IV specifies “with full recovery between episodes” if complete remission is achieved between the two most recent depressive episodes and “no full recovery between episodes” if complete remission is not achieved. In DSM IV, therefore, separate episodes are distinguished by at least 2 months from not meeting the criteria for major depression, which contrasts with the stricter requirements of the ICD-10 of 2 months without any significant symptoms. Therefore, there is some ambiguity as to whether total remission is required to define separate episodes. Major depressive disorder and persistent depressive disorder are two of the most common types of depression people experience, however, there are many types of depression.
Most mood disorders have major depressive episodes in common. This is also true for bipolar disorder, another type of mood disorder. People who have major depressive disorder have had at least one major depressive episode (five or more symptoms for at least a two-week period). For some people, this disorder is recurrent, meaning that they may experience episodes once a month, once a year, or several times throughout their lives.
People with recurrent episodes of major depression are sometimes said to have unipolar depression (or what was once called “clinical depression”), because they only experience periods of low or depressed mood. Persistent depressive disorder (formerly dysthymia) is a chronic, ongoing state of low-level depression. The depressive state of persistent depressive disorder is not as severe as that of major depression, but it can be just as disabling. Postpartum depression is characterized by feelings of sadness, indifference, exhaustion and anxiety that a woman may experience after the birth of her baby.
It affects one in 9 women who have had a child and can affect any woman, regardless of age, race or economic status. People diagnosed with bipolar disorder have mood swings that include both low (bipolar depression) and high levels (called mania if severe or hypomania if mild). When people experience the minimums of bipolar disorder (bipolar depression), their symptoms are very similar to what a person with unipolar depression might experience. Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) usually begins in late fall and early winter and dissipates during spring and summer.
Summer-related depressive episodes can occur, but are much less common than winter episodes of SAD. Psychotic depression occurs when psychotic characteristics, such as hallucinations and delusions, are accompanied by a major depressive episode, although psychotic symptoms generally have a depressive theme such as guilt, worthlessness, and death. Bipolar disorder is a mood disorder characterized by periods of abnormally elevated mood known as mania. These periods can be mild (hypomania) or they can be so extreme that they cause a marked deterioration in a person's life, require hospitalization, or affect a person's sense of reality.
The vast majority of people with bipolar disorder also have episodes of major depression. If you or someone you love is struggling with depression, contact the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) National Helpline at 1-800-662-4357 for information on support and treatment facilities in your area. Dysthymia, now known as persistent depressive disorder, refers to a type of chronic depression present for more days than not for at least two years. May be mild, moderate or severe 1 According to the National Institute of Mental Health, 1.5% of adults in the United States had persistent depressive disorder in the past year.
The disorder affects women (1.9 per cent) more than men (1 per cent), and researchers estimate that about 1.3 per cent of all EE,. Adults will have the disorder at some point in their lives. Currently classified as peripartum onset depression, postpartum depression (PPD) is more than just “postpartum melancholy.”. If you experience depression, sleepiness, and weight gain during the winter months, but feel perfectly well in spring, you may have a condition known as seasonal affective disorder (SAD) ,1 currently called major depressive disorder with a seasonal pattern.
Prevalence rates for SAD can be difficult to determine because the condition is often not diagnosed or reported. It is more common in areas further away from the equator. For example, estimates suggest that APR affects 1% of Florida's population; that figure rises to 9% in Alaska. Send us a confidential message or call 713-660-1100.